Kufanele isethwe kanjani isekethe yokuvikela ibhethri ye-lithium ephephile

Ngokwezibalo, isidingo somhlaba wonke samabhethri e-lithium-ion sesifinyelele ku-1.3 billion, futhi ngokwanda okuqhubekayo kwezindawo zokufaka izicelo, lesi sibalo sikhula unyaka nonyaka.Ngenxa yalokhu, ngokunyuka okusheshayo kokusetshenziswa kwamabhethri e-lithium-ion ezimbonini ezihlukahlukene, ukusebenza kokuphepha kwebhethri kuya ngokuya kugqama, akudingi nje kuphela ukushaja okuhle nokukhipha ukusebenza kwamabhethri e-lithium-ion, kodwa futhi kudinga izinga eliphezulu. ukusebenza kokuphepha.Lokho amabhethri e-lithium ekugcineni kungani umlilo ngisho nokuqhuma, yiziphi izinyathelo ezingagwenywa futhi ziqedwe?

Ukwakheka kwezinto zebhethri ye-lithium nokuhlaziywa kokusebenza

Okokuqala, ake siqonde ukwakheka impahla lithium amabhethri.Ukusebenza kwamabhethri e-lithium-ion ikakhulukazi kuncike ekwakhiweni nasekusebenzeni kwezinto zangaphakathi zamabhethri asetshenzisiwe.Lezi zinto zangaphakathi zebhethri zifaka impahla ye-electrode engalungile, i-electrolyte, i-diaphragm kanye nezinto ezibonakalayo ze-electrode.Phakathi kwazo, ukukhetha kanye nekhwalithi yezinto ezinhle nezimbi kunquma ngokuqondile ukusebenza kanye nentengo yamabhethri e-lithium-ion.Ngakho-ke, ucwaningo lwezinto ezishibhile neziphezulu zokusebenza okuhle nokubi kwe-electrode bekugxile ekuthuthukisweni kwemboni yebhethri ye-lithium-ion.

Izinto ze-electrode ezingezinhle ngokuvamile zikhethwa njengezinto zekhabhoni, futhi ukuthuthukiswa sekuvuthiwe manje.Ukuthuthukiswa kwezinto ze-cathode sekuyisici esibalulekile esikhawulela ukuthuthukiswa okuqhubekayo kokusebenza kwebhethri ye-lithium-ion kanye nokwehliswa kwentengo.Emkhiqizweni wamanje wezohwebo wamabhethri e-lithium-ion, izindleko ze-cathode material zibalwa cishe ngama-40% wezindleko zebhethri iyonke, futhi ukuncipha kwentengo yezinto ze-cathode kunquma ngokuqondile ukwehla kwentengo yamabhethri e-lithium-ion.Lokhu kuyiqiniso ikakhulukazi kumabhethri amandla e-lithium-ion.Isibonelo, ibhethri elincane le-lithium-ion likamakhalekhukhwini lidinga kuphela amagremu angu-5 wezinto ze-cathode, kuyilapho ibhethri lamandla e-lithium-ion lokushayela ibhasi lingadinga kufika ku-500 kg we-cathode material.

Nakuba ngokwethiyori kunezinhlobo eziningi zezinto ezingasetshenziswa njenge-electrode eqondile yamabhethri e-Li-ion, ingxenye eyinhloko yezinto ezivamile ze-electrode eqondile yi-LiCoO2.Lapho ishaja, amandla kagesi anezelwa ezigxotsheni ezimbili zebhethri aphoqelela inhlanganisela ye-electrode ephozithivu ukuze ikhulule ama-ion e-lithium, ashumekwe kukhabhoni ye-electrode engalungile enesakhiwo se-lamellar.Lapho ekhishwa, ama-ion e-lithium aphuma esakhiweni se-lamellar sekhabhoni futhi aphinde ahlangane nenhlanganisela ku-electrode ephozithivu.Ukuhamba kwe-lithium ion kukhiqiza amandla kagesi.Lesi yisimiso sendlela amabhethri e-lithium asebenza ngayo.

Ishaja yebhethri ye-Li-ion kanye nomklamo wokuphathwa kokukhipha

Nakuba isimiso silula, ekukhiqizweni kwezimboni zangempela, kunezinto eziningi ezisebenzayo okufanele zicatshangelwe: impahla ye-electrode ekhangayo idinga izithasiselo ukuze kugcinwe umsebenzi wokushaja okuningi nokukhipha, kanye nempahla ye-electrode engalungile idinga ukuklanywa izinga lesakhiwo samangqamuzana ukuze kuhlaliswe ama-ion e-lithium amaningi;i-electrolyte egcwele phakathi kwama-electrode amahle namabi, ngaphezu kokugcina ukuzinza, futhi idinga ukuba ne-conductivity kagesi enhle futhi inciphise ukumelana kwangaphakathi kwebhethri.

Nakuba ibhethri ye-lithium-ion inazo zonke izinzuzo ezishiwo ngenhla, kodwa izidingo zayo zomjikelezo wokuvikela ziphakeme ngokuqhathaniswa, ekusetshenzisweni kwenqubo kufanele kube ngokuqinile ukugwema ukushaja ngokweqile, ukukhishwa ngokweqile, ukukhishwa kwamanje akufanele. ibe nkulu kakhulu, ngokuvamile, izinga lokukhipha akufanele libe ngaphezu kwe-0.2 C. Inqubo yokushaja yamabhethri e-lithium iboniswa emfanekisweni.Emjikelezweni wokushaja, amabhethri e-lithium-ion adinga ukubona amandla kagesi kanye nezinga lokushisa lebhethri ngaphambi kokuba ishaje iqale ukucacisa ukuthi ingashajwa yini.Uma i-voltage yebhethri noma izinga lokushisa lingaphandle kwebanga elivunyelwe umkhiqizi, ukushaja akuvunyelwe.Ibanga lamandla kagesi wokushaja elivumelekile lithi: 2.5V~4.2V ibhethri ngalinye.

Esimeni lapho ibhethri liphuma lijulile, ishaja kufanele idingeke ukuthi ibe nenqubo yokushajwa ngaphambilini ukuze ibhethri ihlangabezane nemibandela yokushajwa ngokushesha;bese, ngokwezinga lokushaja elisheshayo elituswe umkhiqizi webhethri, ngokuvamile elingu-1C, ishaja ishaja ibhethri ngamandla angaguquki futhi amandla ebhethri akhuphuka kancane;uma i-voltage yebhethri ifinyelela ku-voltage yokunqamula emisiwe (ngokuvamile i-4.1V noma i-4.2V), ukushaja okungaguquki kwamanje kuyanqanyulwa kanye namandla okushaja Lapho i-voltage yebhethri ifinyelela ku-voltage yokunqamula emisiwe (ngokuvamile engu-4.1V noma 4.2V), ukushaja okungashintshi kwamanje iyanqamula, ukushaja kwamanje kubola ngokushesha futhi ukushaja kungena inqubo yokushaja egcwele;phakathi nenqubo yokushaja egcwele, amandla amanje okushaja awola kancane kancane kuze kube yilapho izinga lokushaja lehla libe ngaphansi kuka-C/10 noma isikhathi esigcwele sokushaja seqile, bese iphenduka ibe ukushaja okusikiwe okuphezulu;ngesikhathi sokushaja okuphezulu, ishaja igcwalisa ibhethri ngamandla amancane kakhulu wokushaja.Ngemuva kwesikhathi sokushajwa okuphezulu, ukushaja kuyavalwa.


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Nov-15-2022