Ukwanda komthamo webhethri lokugcinwa kwamandla kukhulu kakhulu, kodwa kungani kusenokushoda?

Ihlobo lika-2022 kwakuyisizini eshisa kakhulu kulo lonke ikhulu leminyaka.

Kwakushisa kangangokuthi izitho zazibuthakathaka futhi umphefumulo wawungaphandle komzimba;kushisa kangangokuthi umuzi wonke waba mnyama.

Ngesikhathi lapho ugesi wawunzima kakhulu ezakhamuzini, uSichuan wanquma ukumisa ugesi wasezimbonini izinsuku ezinhlanu kusukela ngo-August 15. Ngemva kokunqamuka kukagesi, inqwaba yezinkampani zezimboni yamisa ukukhiqiza futhi yaphoqa abasebenzi abagcwele ukuba bathathe iholide.

Kusukela ekupheleni kukaSepthemba, ukushoda kwebhethri kuqhubekile, futhi umkhuba wezinkampani zokugcina amandla okumiswa kwama-oda uye wanda.Ukushoda kwendawo yokugcina amandla kuphinde kwaphusha isekethe yokugcina amandla yafinyelela kuvuthondaba.

Ngokwezibalo zoMnyango Wezimboni, ingxenye yokuqala yalo nyaka, ukukhiqizwa kwebhethri kazwelonke yokugcina amandla ngaphezu kuka-32GWh.Ngo-2021, isitoreji samandla esisha sase-China sengeze isamba esingu-4.9GWh kuphela.

Kuyabonakala ukuthi ukwanda kwamandla okukhiqiza ibhethri, kube kukhulu kakhulu, kodwa kungani kusashoda?

Leli phepha lihlinzeka ngokuhlaziywa okujulile kwezimbangela zokushoda kwebhethri egcina amandla e-China kanye nendlela yalo yesikhathi esizayo kulezi zindawo ezintathu ezilandelayo:

Okokuqala, isidingo: ukuguqulwa kwegridi okubalulekile

Okwesibili, ukunikezwa: awukwazi ukuncintisana nemoto

Okwesithathu, ikusasa: ukushintshela ku-liquid flow battery?

Isidingo: Ukuguqulwa kwegridi okubalulekile

Ukuze uqonde isidingo sokugcina amandla, zama ukuphendula umbuzo owodwa.

Kungani ukunqamuka kukagesi ngezinga elikhulu kuvame ukwenzeka eShayina phakathi nezinyanga zasehlobo?

Ngasohlangothini lwesidingo, kokubili ukusetshenziswa kukagesi wezimboni nezindawo zokuhlala kukhombisa izinga elithile "lokungalingani kwesizini", nezikhathi "eziphakeme" kanye "nezinqola".Ezimweni eziningi, ukunikezwa kwegridi kungahlangabezana nesidingo sansuku zonke sikagesi.

Kodwa-ke, amazinga okushisa asehlobo aphezulu akhulisa ukusetshenziswa kwemishini yokuhlala.Ngesikhathi esifanayo, izinkampani eziningi zilungisa izimboni zazo futhi isikhathi esiphezulu sokusetshenziswa kukagesi sisehlobo.

Kusukela ohlangothini lokunikezela, ukunikezwa kwamandla omoya namandla aphehlwa ngamanzi akuzinzile ngenxa yesimo sezulu sendawo kanye nesizini ethile.E-Sichuan, isibonelo, u-80% kagesi wase-Sichuan uvela kugesi wamanzi.Futhi kulo nyaka, iSifundazwe saseSichuan sibhekane nenhlekelele engavamile yokushisa kanye nesomiso, eyathatha isikhathi eside, nokushoda okukhulu kwamanzi ezitsheni ezinkulu kanye nokutholakala kukagesi okuqinile okuvela ezimbonini eziphehla ugesi.Ukwengeza, isimo sezulu esibi kakhulu kanye nezici ezifana nokwehliswa kungazelelwe kwamandla omoya nakho kungenza izinjini zomoya zingakwazi ukusebenza ngendlela evamile.

Esimeni segebe elikhulu phakathi kokuphakelwa kukagesi kanye nesidingo, ukuze kwandiswe ukusetshenziswa kwegridi yamandla ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuhlinzekwa kukagesi, ukugcinwa kwamandla sekuyindlela engenakugwemeka yokuthuthukisa ukuguquguquka kwesistimu kagesi.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, isistimu yamandla yaseShayina iyaguqulwa isuka emandleni endabuko iye kumandla amasha, ugesi wesithombe, amandla omoya namandla elanga azinzile kakhulu ngenxa yezimo zemvelo, futhi inesidingo esikhulu sokugcina amandla.

Ngokusho kweNational Energy Administration, amandla e-China afakiwe angama-26.7% wokwakheka kwezwe ngo-2021, aphezulu kunesilinganiso somhlaba.

Empendulweni, ngo-Agasti 2021, Ikhomishini Kazwelonke Yokuthuthukiswa Nezinguquko kanye Nokuphathwa Kwezamandla Kazwelonke bakhiphe isaziso sokukhuthaza amabhizinisi aphehla amandla kagesi avuselelekayo ukuthi azakhele awawo noma athenge umthamo ophakeme ukuze kwenyuswe isikali sokuxhunywa kwegridi, iphakamisa ukuthi.

Ngale kwesikali esingaphezu kokuxhumeka kwegridi okuqinisekisiwe kwamabhizinisi egridi, ekuqaleni, umthamo wokukhuphuka uzokwabiwa ngokwesilinganiso sokupheqa esingu-15% wamandla (ngaphezu kwama-4h ngobude), futhi kuzobekwa kuqala kulabo ababiwe ngokwesilinganiso sokunamathisela. 20% noma ngaphezulu.

Kungabonakala, esimweni sokushoda kwamandla, ukuxazulula inkinga "yomoya oshiywe, ukukhanya okushiywe" ayikwazi ukubambezeleka.Uma amandla ashisayo adlule asekelwa isibindi, manje ingcindezi yenqubomgomo "yekhabhoni ephindwe kabili", kufanele ithunyelwe njalo, kodwa ayikho indawo yokusebenzisa amandla omoya kanye nogesi wesithombe ogcinwe, osetshenziswa kwezinye izindawo.

Ngakho-ke, inqubomgomo kazwelonke yaqala ukukhuthaza ngokucacile "ukwabiwa kokukhuphuka", lapho ingxenye enkulu yesabelo, ungakwazi futhi "igridi yokuqala", uhlanganyele ekuhwebeni kwemakethe kagesi, uthole imali ehambisanayo.

Ngokuphendula inqubomgomo emaphakathi, isifunda ngasinye besenza imizamo emikhulu yokuthuthukisa ukugcinwa kwamandla eziteshini zikagesi ngokwezimo zendawo.

Supply: Awukwazi ukuncintisana nezimoto

Kwaqondana nje, ukushoda kwebhethri endaweni yokugcina amandla, kwaqondana nokukhula okungakaze kubonwe ezimotweni zamandla amasha.Iziteshi zamandla kanye nesitoreji semoto, zombili zinesidingo esikhulu samabhethri e-lithium iron phosphate, kodwa naka ukubhida, iziteshi zamandla ezingabizi kakhulu, zingabamba kanjani izinkampani zezimoto ezinolaka?

Ngakho, indawo yokugcina ugesi yayikhona ngaphambili ezinye zezinkinga ezivele.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izindleko zokuqala zokufakwa kwesistimu yokugcina amandla ziphezulu.Ithintwe ukuhlinzekwa kanye nesidingo kanye nokukhuphuka kwentengo yezinto ezingavuthiwe zochungechunge lwemboni, ngemva kuka-2022, intengo yawo wonke ukuhlanganiswa kohlelo lokugcinwa kwamandla, ikhuphuke isuka ku-1,500 yuan / kWh ekuqaleni kuka-2020, yaya ku-1,800 yuan/kWh yamanje.

Ukwanda kwentengo yochungechunge lwemboni yokugcinwa kwamandla, intengo eyinhloko ngokuvamile ingaphezu kwehora elingu-1 yuan / watt, ama-inverters ngokuvamile akhuphuka ngo-5% kuya ku-10%, i-EMS iphinde yenyuka cishe ngo-10%.

Kungabonakala ukuthi izindleko zokuqala zokufaka ziye zaba yisici esiyinhloko esivimbela ukwakhiwa kwesitoreji samandla.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umjikelezo wokubuyisela izindleko mude, futhi inzuzo inzima.Ku-2021 1800 yuan / kWh isistimu yokugcina amandla esibalo sezindleko, isitshalo samandla okugcina amandla okubili ukushaja okubili, ukushaja nokukhipha umehluko wentengo ophakathi ku-0.7 yuan / kWh noma ngaphezulu, okungenani iminyaka engu-10 ukubuyisela izindleko.

Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ngenxa yesikhuthazo sesifunda samanje noma amandla amasha ayimpoqo ngesu lokugcina amandla, ingxenye ye-5% kuya ku-20%, okwandisa izindleko ezihleliwe.
Ngaphezu kwalezi zizathu ezingenhla, isitoreji sesiteshi sikagesi siyafana nokuthi izimoto ezintsha zamandla zizosha, ukuqhuma, le ngozi yokuphepha, nakuba amathuba ephansi kakhulu, vumela isifiso esiphansi kakhulu sengozi yesiteshi sikagesi sidangele.

Kungashiwo ukuthi "isabelo esinamandla" sokugcina amandla, kodwa hhayi inqubomgomo yokuthengiselana exhunywe kugridi, ukuze kube nesidingo esiningi se-oda, kodwa hhayi ngokujaha ukusebenzisa.Phela iziteshi eziningi zikagesi yizinkampani zikahulumeni, ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ukuphepha kuyinto ehamba phambili, nazo zibhekana nokuhlolwa kwezimali, ngubani ongathanda ukuphuthuma isikhathi sokuvuselela umsebenzi omude kangaka?

Ngokwemikhuba yokuthatha izinqumo, ama-oda amaningi okugcina amandla eziteshini zikagesi, kufanele abekwe, alengiswe, alinde ukucaciswa okwengeziwe kwenqubomgomo.Imakethe idinga umlomo omkhulu ukuze udle izinkalankala, kodwa ube nesibindi, phela, hhayi abaningi.

Kungabonakala ukuthi inkinga yokugcina amandla esiteshini samandla ukumba ngokujulile, ngaphezu kwengxenye encane yokwenyuka kwentengo ye-lithium ekhuphukayo, kunengxenye enkulu yezixazululo zendabuko zezobuchwepheshe ezingasebenzi ngokugcwele esimweni sesiteshi samandla, kanjani kufanele siyixazulule inkinga?

Kuleli qophelo, ikhambi lebhethri eligeleza uketshezi langena obala.Abanye ababambiqhaza bemakethe baphawule ukuthi "isilinganiso esifakiwe sokugcina amandla e-lithium sithande ukwehla kusukela ngo-Ephreli 2021, futhi ukukhuphuka kwemakethe kushintshela kumabhethri okugeleza uketshezi".Ngakho, liyini leli bhethri eligelezayo?

Ikusasa: ukushintshela kumabhethri oketshezi?

Kalula nje, amabhethri okugeleza okuwuketshezi anezinzuzo eziningi ezisebenza ezimeni zokutshala amandla.Amabhethri ajwayelekile okugeleza okuwuketshezi, okuhlanganisa amabhethri agelezayo e-anadium liquid, i-zinc-iron liquid flow battery, njll.

Ukuthatha wonke amabhethri e-vanadium liquid flow njengesibonelo, izinzuzo zawo zihlanganisa.

Okokuqala, impilo yomjikelezo omude kanye nezici ezinhle zokushaja kanye nezici zokuwakhipha zizenza zifanelekele izimo ezinkulu zokugcina amandla.Impilo yomjikelezo wokushaja/wokukhipha wayo yonke ibhethri ye-vanadium liquid flow flow energy ingaba izikhathi ezingaphezu kuka-13,000, futhi impilo yekhalenda ingaphezu kweminyaka eyi-15.

Okwesibili, amandla nomthamo webhethri "zizimele" komunye nomunye, okwenza kube lula ukulungisa isikali somthamo wokugcina amandla.Amandla ebhethri eligelezayo le-all-vanadium liquid anqunywa usayizi nenombolo yesitaki, futhi umthamo unqunywa ukugxila kanye nevolumu ye-electrolyte.Ukunwetshwa kwamandla ebhethri kungafinyelelwa ngokukhuphula amandla e-reactor nokwandisa inani lama-reactor, kuyilapho ukukhushulwa kwamandla kungafinyelelwa ngokwandisa umthamo we-electrolyte.

Ekugcineni, izinto zokusetshenziswa zingaphinda zigaywe kabusha.Isixazululo sayo se-electrolyte singagaywa kabusha futhi sisetshenziswe kabusha.

Kodwa-ke, isikhathi eside, izindleko zamabhethri okugeleza kwe-liquid ziye zahlala ziphezulu, zivimbela ukusetshenziswa kokuhweba okukhulu.

Ukuthatha i-vanadium liquid amabhethri okugeleza njengesibonelo, izindleko zawo ikakhulukazi zivela ku-reactor kagesi kanye ne-electrolyte.

Izindleko ze-electrolyte zenza cishe ingxenye yezindleko, ezithinteka kakhulu ngentengo ye-vanadium;okunye kuyizindleko zesitaki, eziphuma ikakhulukazi kuma-membrane okushintshanisa i-ion, ama-electrode e-carbon felt kanye nezinye izinto eziyisihluthulelo.

Ukuhlinzekwa kwe-vanadium ku-electrolyte kuyinkinga ephikisanayo.Iziqiwi zaseChina ze-vanadium zingeyesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni, kodwa lesi sakhi sitholakala kakhulu nezinye izakhi, futhi ukuncibilikisa kuwumsebenzi ongcolisa kakhulu, odinga amandla amaningi nemikhawulo yenqubomgomo.Ngaphezu kwalokho, imboni yensimbi yenza iningi lesidingo se-vanadium, kanti umkhiqizi wasekhaya oyinhloko, i-Phangang Vanadium ne-Titanium, vele, ihlinzeka ngokukhiqizwa kwensimbi kuqala.

Ngale ndlela, amabhethri okugeleza kwamanzi e-vanadium, kubonakala sengathi, aphinda inkinga yezixazululo zokugcina amandla e-lithium - ukubamba umthamo okhuphuka nomfula ngemboni eningi kakhulu, futhi ngaleyo ndlela izindleko zishintshashintsha ngokuphawulekayo ngesisekelo somjikelezo.Ngale ndlela, kunesizathu sokubheka izakhi ezengeziwe zokuhlinzeka ngesixazululo esizinzile sebhethri lokugeleza koketshezi.

Ulwelwesi lwe-ion exchange kanye ne-carbon feel electrode ku-reactor kufana "nentamo" ye-chip.

Ngokuqondene ne-ion exchange membrane material, amabhizinisi asekhaya ikakhulukazi asebenzisa ifilimu yokushintshanisa i-Nafion proton eyenziwe yi-DuPont, inkampani yekhulu leminyaka e-United States, ebiza kakhulu.Futhi, nakuba inokuqina okuphezulu ku-electrolyte, kukhona iziphambeko ezifana nokufinyeleleka okuphezulu kwe-vanadium ions, akulula ukuwehlisa.

I-carbon felt electrode material nayo inqunyelwe abakhiqizi bangaphandle.Izinto ezinhle ze-electrode zingathuthukisa ukusebenza kahle okuphelele kanye namandla okukhipha amabhethri okugeleza kwe-liquid.Kodwa-ke, okwamanje, imakethe ye-carbon felt isetshenziswa ikakhulukazi abakhiqizi bangaphandle njenge-SGL Group kanye neToray Industries.

Okuphelele phansi, ukubala, izindleko zebhethri ye-vanadium liquid flow, kune-lithium ephakeme kakhulu.

Isitoreji samandla ibhethri elisha elibizayo lokugeleza koketshezi, kusekude phambili.

I-Epilogue: Isihluthulelo sokunqamula umjikelezo omkhulu wasekhaya

Ukusho amagama ayinkulungwane, isitoreji sesiteshi samandla okufanele sithuthukiswe, okubaluleke kakhulu, kodwa hhayi ukuthi yimiphi imininingwane yezobuchwepheshe, kodwa sula isitoreji sesiteshi samandla ukuze ubambe iqhaza kumzimba oyinhloko wokuthengiselana kwemakethe yamandla.

Uhlelo lwegridi yamandla e-China lukhulu kakhulu, luyinkimbinkimbi, ukuze isiteshi samandla esinokugcinwa kwamandla esizimele ku-intanethi, akuyona indaba elula, kodwa lolu daba alukwazi ukuhlehliswa.

Eziteshini ezinkulu zamandla, uma isabelo sokugcina amandla siwukwenza kuphela izinsizakalo ezisizayo, futhi singenaso isimo sokuhweba ezimakethe ezizimele, okungukuthi, angeke kube ugesi oweqile, ngentengo efanelekile yemakethe ukuyithengisa kwabanye, khona-ke. le akhawunti ihlale inzima kakhulu ukuyibala.

Ngakho-ke, kufanele senze konke okusemandleni ukuze senze izimo zeziteshi zikagesi ezinesitoreji samandla ziguquke zibe yisimo esizimele sokusebenza, ukuze sibe ngumhlanganyeli osebenzayo emakethe yokuhweba amandla.

Lapho imakethe isiqhubekele phambili, izindleko eziningi nezinkinga zobuchwepheshe ezibhekene nokugcinwa kwamandla, ngikholelwa ukuthi lokho kuzophinde kuxazululwe.


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Nov-07-2022